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HM Mass Spectrometer - Design

CHAPTER 2: Electromagnetic Conceptions


Single Solenoid Coil

A solenoid is essentially a coil of wire, typically made of copper. When an electrical current flows through the wire, it generates a magnetic field, similar to how a magnet works (see Figure 10).

                                             Figure 10


The solenoid often has a cylindrical shape, which helps to create  strong and uniform magnetic field.

Despite this, there may be variations in design. Solenoids have the potential to feature a D-shaped frame customized for specific applications. However, the prevailing perception of a solenoid usually corresponds to that of an elongated, cylindrical coil. [16]

Simple Simulation


                                            Figure 10


We used COMSOL Multiphysics to simulate a simple design consisting of a single solenoid with a cylindrical shape (4 cm in diameter and 5 cm in height).

We used 100 turns, a relative permeability of 3000, and 6 amperes, and that was the result (see Figure 10).

The simulation was conducted again with two solenoids positioned 14 cm apart to analyze the magnetic field between them (see Figure 11).

                                           Figure 11                         


As we can see, the magnetic field is uniform only in the middle, which is insufficient for our application. By employing additional solenoids, we can attain an even more uniform magnetic field.

The simulation indicates that the magnetic field density is insufficient to achieve a 60 mT (0.06 Tesla) strength between the two solenoids.


Biot-Savart Law





Multi-solenoid Unit


Multi-solenoid is an electromagnet component that produces a consistent uniform magnetic flux density along a relatively large





C-shape Unit


















[16]: Ltd, I. A. (n.d.). Linear Solenoid - Classic Line LCL-D. Kendrion Solenoids | Impulse Automation Ltd. https://www.impulseautomation.co.uk/kendrion-solenoids/kendrion-lcl-d-solenoid/